Guide expert: Chief Physician Tan Guozhen, Department of Dermatology, Sun Yixian Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat -sen University
The patient Xiaomei bought a baby cosmetics for two months. He wanted to counterattack to become a little fairy, but he used to become a big red face, itchy and painful, and he had suffering.
The child Xiaoxiong went to camping on weekends. He picked up a branch in the suburbs and planned to cut a wooden sword, but he did not want to “learn martial arts”. After that, blister ulcers, purulent, and allergies of the whole body;
After a day of busy Mom Dan Dan, she could finally get into the bed. She did not expect that the bed was uncomfortable.
Recently, the Department of Dermatology at Sun Yixian Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat -sen University took several cases of “special” skin diseases. What’s wrong with them? Professor Tan Guozhen of the dermatology department pointed out that these patients are all skin allergies.
What is allergic skin disease?
July 8th is that the World Allergic Disease Day is about to come. Allergies are very common in our lives, such as allergic rhinitis, asthma induced by pollen, urticaria caused by food, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics, and so on.
Allergic skin diseases refer to the human body through the skin and mucous membrane contact, respiratory tract inhalation, injection, and food in the allergen, induced the body to produce abnormal, pathological perverted reactions Symptoms are often accompanied by tingling and itching diseases. With the continuous improvement of industrialization, the incidence of allergic skin diseases has increased year by year.
Why is it allergic?
Allergies are a specific immune response that occurs after the body is stimulated by antigen, which is manifested as tissue damage and physiological dysfunction. The substance that causes allergic reactions is called allergens. After the initial enters the body, the body is sensitive. The body’s immune system will produce immune memories of this allergen, that is, it has the potential ability of allergic reactions. If you come into contact with the same allergen again, it will lead to allergies.
Which are the common allergies? Based on its sources, it is mainly divided into four categories: food, medicinal, inhalation and contact allergens.
Food -based allergen: It mainly refers to some protein macromolecules, such as seafood, cashew, peanuts, milk, eggs, beef and mutton, etc. some fruits such as mango, pineapple, etc.
Drug -based allergens: certain drugs such as sulfa, penicillin, analgesic and heat -degenerating drugs and vaccines.
Inhalation allergens: such as pollen, dust, mold, dust mites, animal dandruff, industrial pollution, etc., which are allergic to the air.
Contact allergens: The most common is alloy, such as daily daily chemical supplies such as soap, laundry powder, flavors, and preservatives, which are frequently exposed to contact with daily contact. It is also very common.
Three tests to help you get out of allergens
There are many types of allergens, and they can be seen everywhere in daily life. Patients often inadvertently expose allergens because they do not know which substance they are allergic to. In fact, we can use some inspection methods to find common allergens. Common allergen testing methods include: skin spines, spotting tests, and in vitro allergen test tests.
Skin stab test: It is mainly aimed at high -hairstyle allergic skin diseases, such as urticaria, medicine rash, etc. The method is to drop different types of highly purified allergen liquids on the forearm, and then gently pierce the skin surface with some thorns. If the patient Allergens to the allergens will appear in the corresponding stabbing position within 15 minutes, which will appear red swelling similar to mosquito bites, accompanied by itching.
Patch Test: It is suitable for delayed disease -related diseases, such as contact dermatitis, professional dermatitis, hand eczema, cosmetic dermatitis, or unknown but recurrent eczema.其做法为在皮肤表面贴上附有不同的过敏原的敷贴，48-72小时后观察，若患者对某种过敏原过敏，则在对应的斑贴位置会出现局部反应（红斑、丘疹、 Blossom, etc.).
In vitro allergen test test: By extracting a small amount of blood, testing the test of specific antibodies produced by certain allergens in the serum, especially suitable for children and systemic skin lesions, etc. Patients. This method is safer and reliable, and can detect most of the allergens without empty stomach and stopping medicine.
Stay away from allergens is the most fundamental way to prevent allergic dermatitis
How to prevent allergic skin diseases?
First of all, try to find possible allergens and “hide it” in life. This is the most fundamental way to prevent allergic dermatitis. For common allergens such as dust mites, pollen, animal fur, mold, etc., we should pay attention to keeping indoor ventilation and cleaning in daily life; diligently dry and dry the pillowcase, cover the dust mites to remove the dust mites; Animal fur products; during the peak of pollen and catkins, should be reduced as much as possible and closed the indoor doors and windows. Some patients are allergic to cosmetics. In this case, not only do you immediately stop allergic cosmetics, but also use new cosmetics. It is recommended to apply the skin to the skin concealment before using to detect whether you are allergic.
In addition, we should try to avoid the external stimulation of the skin, such as hot water washing, violent scratching, excessive cleaning, etc. Some patients use hot water to wash the affected area due to itching, or desperately scratch them until they can break the bleeding. Although these measures can stop itching in a short period of time, it will essentially aggravate skin damage and lead to a vicious circle. For slight skin allergies, it can be used to relieve itching and itching of glyphosate washing agent and glucocorticoid ointment. If necessary, the system uses antihistamine drugs or even glucocorticoids. The condition can generally be controlled quickly. If heavier breathing difficulties occur or even shock, you need to go to the hospital for treatment urgently. Expert Introduction
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Tan Guozhen, chief physician, deputy director of the dermatology department of Sun Yixian Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat -sen University, and director of immune dermatology. Ph.D., PhD in Medicine at Sun Yat -sen University, doctoral supervisor. The deputy leader of the Guangdong Medical Society’s Skin Disease Branch Allergic and Metaphysics Reactions. He has been engaged in skin clinical, teaching and scientific research for more than 30 years. He is good at allergic skin diseases such as eczema dermatitis, urticaria, drug rash and immune skin diseases such as lupus erythematosus, dermatitis, hammi, pects, pects, and mildel -like peg -like millar The diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis, alopecia areata, vitiligo, etc., also have unique insights on acne, pigment skin diseases, and diagnosis and treatment of skin tumors.
(Correspondent: Liu Wenqin, Qiu Yannan)