It is estimated that the prevalence of global chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 2017 was 9.1%, which was 29.3%higher than in 1990. It brought a heavy burden on health resources and society, because CKD patients suffered from hypertension, stroke, anemia, bone bone, bone, and bone. The risks of other diseases such as mass looseness and depression have increased. Diabetes (DM) is one of the world’s most common chronic non -infectious diseases. DM is a gradual disease that can lead to a variety of complications and one of the main risk factors for CKD development. According to statistics, 38%of the last -term kidney disease (ESKD) in the United States is attributed to diabetes.
Inflammation and oxidation stress should be proven to play an important role in the occurrence and progress of DM and CKD. Patients with DM and/or CKD have mild and persistent inflammation. Studies have found that the concentration of inflammation and oxide biomarkers and mediums is inversely proportional to renal function levels as well as diabetic microvascular and large blood vessel complications. Therefore, drugs that inhibit inflammation and enhance antioxidant ability may be considered potential auxiliary therapies for patients with DM and CKD. The linen seeds are rich in oil, of which 51 ~ 55%are α linolenic acid. In addition, some compounds have been proven to have antioxidant, lower blood lipids and blood sugar lowering.
This study aims to clarify the effects of linsee seeds that induced diabetes caused by or not experiments that induces CKD.
Test rats (n = 48) were randomly divided into 8 equal groups (6 each group) and continuously treated for 33 days. The concentration of linen seeds and diet is 15%W/W. The treatment details of different groups are summarized in Table 1.
1. Physical parameters
Compared with the control group, when the adenine and chaincin (STZ) are used alone or at the same time, the measured physiological parameters have changed significantly: significantly reduced weight, significantly increased the weight, water intake and liver weight, water intake and liver of the kidneys and liver. Food intake and urine volume. When the linen seeds and gonads, STZs, or two are used in combination, most of the above changes can be significantly reduced. (Table 2)
2. Biochemical and urinary parameters
Table 3 shows the impact of adenine, STZ and linen seeds alone and different combinations on various biochemical parameters.
The adenine and linen seeds have no significant effect on the level of blood sugar when taking it alone. On the other hand, STZ is taken alone or at the same time as adenine, which will lead to a significant increase in blood glucose levels. The linen seeds can significantly reduce the level of blood sugar caused by STZ. Compared with the control group, the adenine and STZ alone or combined with the consolidation of plasma creatinine, urea, uric acid and phosphorus levels can be significantly increased. The linen seeds significantly reduce the changes caused by gonadine, reduce changes except uric acid caused by STZ, and significantly reduce changes caused by adenine and STZ. Compared with the control group, the combination of adenine, STZ, or their combinations causes creatinine clearance, urine creatinine, and urine osmotic pressure significantly, which also causes NAG levels, urine albumin/creatinine ratio and urine NAG/creatinine ratio significantly. In addition, STZ significantly increases the excretion of glucose in the urine.
In addition to the effects of STZ and its adenine combined with adenine on urinary permidine and NAG, add linen seeds to adenine, STZ, or their combinations can significantly alleviate these changes (Table 4).
Table 5 shows the effects of adenine, STZ and linen seeds alone and different combinations on plasma kidney damage biomarkers. Both adenine and STZ or combined medications have significantly increased the concentrations of glycolic sulfate, cystin C, Ngal, and AGES, and significantly reduce the concentration of renalase. Except for the impact of adenine and STZ combined therapy on Renalase concentration, linen seeds can significantly alleviate all these changes.
3. Oxidation and inflammation indicators
The effects of different treatment against oxidation biomarkers are shown in Figure 1. The combination of adenine and STZs or their combinations significantly reduces TAC, SOD and hydrogenase levels, and significantly increases 8-OHDG and 8-alien prostaglandin levels. In addition to the impact of adenine and STZ on SOD, linen seeds have significantly reduced these changes.
Figure 2 describes the impact of different treatment of inflammatory biomarkers. The adenine and STZ and its joint applications have significantly improved the levels of IL-1 β, IL-6 and NF-κB, reducing the level of IL-10, and linen seeds significantly alleviate these changes.
4. Change pathological changes
The micro -photos of the kidney tissue HE dyeing and Sirius red stain are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. Figure 5 shows a periodic sour. Table 6 is the lesion score and fibrosis index.
In general, this study has found that linen seeds effectively inhibit almost all the physiological, biochemical and histological changes caused by gonads and/or STZ, indicating that linen seeds or potentially useful dietary supplements, which shows that linen seeds or potentially useful dietary supplements. Management of CKD for diabetes induced. The antioxidant and anti -inflammatory effects of linen seeds have been used to reduce inflammation and oxidation reactions in certain human diseases. For example, the inflammation and oxidation stimulating biomarkers of patients with cystic fibrosis and ulcerative colitis are supplemented by patients with flax seeds. In addition, flaxseeds can be effectively improved to effectively improve some metabolic symptoms, such as lowering blood pressure and lipid peroxidation.
In summary, linen seeds may be a potential drug for treating diabetic nephropathy.
<!-2586: Diabetic terminal page
Mohammed Al Za’abi， et al. Effect of flaxseed on systemic inflammationand oxidative stress in diabetic rats with or without chronic kidney disease.PLOS ONE | https：//doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258800 October 19， 2021