Benefit of exercise
Like dietary treatment and drug treatment, exercise treatment is also an indispensable part of the overall treatment of diabetes. Scientific and reasonable exercise can enhance physical fitness, improve cardiopulmonary function and body immunity.
For patients with diabetes, exercise can also reduce weight, improve insulin resistance, assist blood glucose (especially postprandial blood sugar), and reduce hypoglycemic drugs. Patients with early type 2 diabetes can even be controlled without hypoglycemic drugs. Only diet control and exercise therapy can control blood sugar at normal levels.
Although exercise has a lot of benefits to people with diabetes, not all diabetic patients are suitable for exercise. Patients with severe complications or diabetes with greater blood sugar fluctuations may increase the condition blindly and cause their harm.
In addition, it is not as long as the body must benefit. If you just move casually, you must not have the expected exercise effect, but if you blindly pursue the strength of the exercise and ignore your own ability, it will also cause damage to the body.
So which patients are suitable for exercise? What project should I choose? How to exercise? There is actually a lot of knowledge. Only by paying attention to science, reasonable arrangements, variety of people, and perseverance can we truly achieve the purpose of strengthening the body and preventing diseases.
Preparation before exercise
To ensure the safety of exercise, it should be done before exercise:
1. Go to the hospital for a full physical examination. The inspection items include blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, bottom, renal function, electrocardiogram and cardiac function, etc. to see that there are no heart blood vessels, nerves, and other complications. It can discuss whether the current condition is suitable for exercise, which movement is more suitable, how much exercise, and what should be paid attention to in exercise.
Generally speaking, those with the following 7 cases should not perform physical exercise:
1) Acute complications or acute infections;
2) There are proliferative retinal lesions;
3) There are severe neurological lesions;
4) There are diabetic foot ulcers;
5) Recent myocardial infarction, stroke, combined heart function, and a large amount of proteinuria of diabetic nephropathy;
6) Poor blood pressure control, such as the systolic blood pressure greater than 160mmHg or the diastolic pressure greater than 100mmHg;
7) Poor blood glucose control or large blood sugar fluctuations.
2. Check your feet and choose your feet and socks before each exercise. Pay special attention to the flat soles, and there should be no foreign objects such as sand and stones.
3. “Diabetes First Aid Card” should be carried during exercise. The name, contact information of relatives and friends should be written on the card to express your condition. If an accident occurs, it is convenient for others to take emergency measures and help the patient’s family.
4, carry sugar -containing food with you. Such as sugar blocks, chocolates, biscuits, sweet beverages, etc., to prepare for hypoglycemia.
5. It is best to move together. Let your companions know how to deal with an accident if you are a diabetic patient.
Reasonably select the exercise method
Movement is divided into “aerobic exercise” and “anaerobic exercise”, which is mainly based on the metabolic status of the body. “Aerobic exercise” (also known as “endurance movement”), as the name implies, is the exercise in the aerobic state. It refers to the endurance movement that can enhance the inhalation, transportation and utilization of oxygen in the body. For a long time, it can enhance cardiopulmonary function, improve metabolism, and assist blood sugar and blood lipids.
Aerobic exercise suitable for people with diabetes include walking, jogging, cycling, mountain climbing, fitness, petal dancing, Tai Chi, swimming, boat rowing, etc., and patients can choose according to their own condition and hobbies.
“Aerobight exercise” refers to the high -speed exercise of muscles in the state of “hypoxia”. It is characterized by the low intake of oxygen during exercise. It has to rely on “anaerobic energy supply”, such as running, weightlifting and other competitive sports. This kind of exercise can promote the secretion of sugar hormones in the body, but can increase blood sugar.
Walking is the safest and easy -to -adhere to persistence. It is considered to be the preferred sport for elderly diabetes patients (especially those with poor constitution).
Fitness running is a medium -intensity exercise and is suitable for diabetic patients with good constitution and unprepared blood vessels. Of course, patients with diabetes can also combine specific conditions such as their hobbies, actual condition, physical condition, and environmental conditions. For local conditions, choose the way of exercise that suits them. Run and wait for exercise.
Scientifically determine the amount of exercise
The amount of exercise of diabetic patients must be moderate. Excessive exercise intensity is not only prone to hypoglycemia, but also to heavy heart burden and harmful to the body. If the exercise intensity is too small, it will not achieve the purpose of exercising and controlling blood sugar. Therefore, science determining the amount of exercise is important. Here are the method where the intensity of the exercise is appropriate is introduced:
1. “Talk Test” method: This is a simple way to measure the intensity of exercise. It can reach the level of natural conversation when exercise, indicating that the strength of the exercise is relatively moderate; if you are asthmatic during exercise, the conversation is difficult, indicating that the exercise intensity is too large, and it must be appropriately reduced.
2. “Self -feeling” method: ① Insufficient exercise. There is no sweat after exercise, no heat, no change in heart rate or resting within 2 minutes of rest. ② Appropriate exercise. After exercise, there are slightly sweat, relaxed and happy; slightly weak, disappear after rest, and have abundant energy the next day. ③ Excessive exercise. After exercise, sweating, chest tightness and shortness of breath; very tired, 15 minutes after rest, the pulse did not recover, and the next day was weak.
3. The “suitable heart rate” method: that is, to understand whether your exercise intensity is suitable immediately after motion. If the pulse (secondary/point) during exercise reaches “170-age”, it means that the exercise intensity is appropriate. For example, a 50-year-old patient, the suitable heart rate in exercise is about 120 times/min (170-50). In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to changes in blood pressure. The exercise intensity is advisable to have no more than 180 mm Hg.
Timing and quantitative exercise
The purpose of exercise treatment is to cooperate with diet and hypoglycemic drugs to control blood sugar levels. Therefore, exercise must not do it at will, and the exercise time, exercise intensity and exercise frequency are as relatively fixed as possible.
1. Fixed time: Diabetic patients should be relatively fixed at each exercise time. Most scholars believe that 1 hour after meals is the best time for patients with diabetes, because the blood glucose level in the body is relatively high, exercise does not easily lead to hypoglycemia, and it helps to reduce blood sugar.
It should be noted that patients with diabetes should not exercise on an empty stomach, especially after taking hypoglycemic drugs (or injection of insulin), and exercise before eating, so as not to occur to avoid hypoglycemia.
2. Fixed intensity: exercise strength should be relatively fixed, so as to reduce blood sugar fluctuations and prevent hypoglycemia from occurring.
3. The fixed frequency is timely: American diabetes prevention research shows that exercise per week is more suitable for patients with diabetes. The short time is too short to reach the ideal effect, and it is easy to damage skeletal muscles. Arrange at least 5 days a week and about 30 minutes per exercise time.
Of course, patients with good physical fitness can properly extend the exercise time, while those with an elderly body can be reduced. Do not exercise on weekdays, and save the weekend “violent”.
Stepping and perseverance
In accordance with the principle of gradual steps, starting from low exercise (40%of the maximum oxygen consumption), the duration is 5 ~ 10 minutes. If the patient feels well, he can continue to adapt to exercise, and then gradually enter medium -intensity movements (50%~ 60%of the maximum oxygen consumption). If there are symptoms such as dyspnea, compression, dizziness, headache, pale complexion in the chest during exercise and exercise, the exercise should be stopped immediately. In severe cases, it is necessary to send it to the hospital as soon as possible.
In addition, no matter what kind of exercise method is adopted, it must be adhered to for a long time to make it a conscious behavior in daily life. “Three -day fishing, two days of sunbathing” is not effective. According to information, the termination of exercise for 3 days will disappear with improved insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the implementation of exercise therapy at least 3 times a week.
Relax before exercise and warm -up and exercise after exercise
To ensure the safety of exercise, warm -up before exercise and relaxation after exercise are essential steps.
1. Heating exercise: Do 5 ~ 10 minutes of low -intensity aerobic warm -up exercise before exercise. For example, do some stretch exercises before running, then slowly walk for 5 ~ 6 minutes, and then gradually speed up the steps. The purpose is to gradually increase the strength of exercise, improve the ability to adapt to exercise for the cardiovascular system, and improve the flexibility of joints and muscles, so as not to strain the muscles. However, to avoid screen gas movements, the contraction pressure can be increased because of the screen gas.
2. Relax and sorting: A large amount of blood gathered in the muscle tissue of the limbs during exercise. If the exercise suddenly stops, the blood cannot return to the heart quickly and cause temporary cerebral ischemia, causing dizziness, nausea, and even collapse. Therefore, do not stop suddenly, at least 5-10 minutes of finishing exercise, so that the heart rate will restore the level of 10-15 times higher than the rest of the minute before stopping to rest. For example, after 20 minutes of jogging, gradually change to fast walking, slow walking, waist, kick, and then walk home to rest.
Prevent and dispose of hypoglycemia during exercise
Exercise can consume energy and reduce blood sugar, but sometimes hungry stomach exercise can also cause hypoglycemia. In order to prevent hypoglycemia during exercise and after exercise, the following principles should be followed:
1. Participate in exercise at 1 to 2 hours after meals. At this time, blood sugar is high, so hypoglycemia is not easy to occur.
2. Try not to choose the thighs and other parts as much as possible in the injection of the insulin injection. Because the blood flow of the strenuous parts during exercise will increase, the insulin absorption will be accelerated, which will easily lead to hypoglycemia.
3. Try to avoid fasting.
4. If you want to perform medium or more exercise and last for a long time, you can appropriately reduce the amount of hypoglycemic drugs (including insulin) before exercise.
5. If possible, you can measure blood sugar once with blood glucose meters before and after exercise to understand how much exercise is more appropriate, so as not to cause hypoglycemia.
6. If you have symptoms such as hunger, panic, cold sweat, dizziness, and limb weakness during exercise, you should stop exercise immediately and take the food you carry with you. Mild hypoglycemia usually rests for about 10 minutes. It can be relieved. If it fails to ease, you should eat it again and immediately escort them to the hospital by others.
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Exercise treatment emphasizes individualization. Individuals of different ages and constitutions are different when choosing exercise methods and exercise intensity. In addition, the three principles that exercise must follow are “step -by -step”, “doing force” and “perseverance.”