The skin is the largest organ of the human body and is the first line of defense to protect our health and beauty. Therefore, the invasion of microorganisms, the disorders of the immune system, and the occurrence of some basic diseases may leave a variety of “marks” on our skin. The white spots we often see are an important disease signal.
Vitiligo is a kind of acquired pigment loss skin mucosal disease that is commonly used in adults. The formation of vitiligo is mainly related to melanin cells that can produce melanin can be destroyed or lost in the skin. Vitiligo during the progress period is closely related to the human immune system.
Vitiligo often manifested as the loss of skin pigmentation, white, and its edges can be pigmented. Generally, there is no dedue or sweating too much. The treatment cycle of vitiligo is long and easy to relapse, but it is relatively easy to control at the beginning of the onset. The earlier the treatment, the more ideal the effect. In the initial white spot skin lesions, there are still melanin cells that have not been completely destroyed. At this time, the diagnosis and early treatment can be clearly diagnosed and early treatment can achieve the ideal treatment effect.
When it comes to white spots, many people first think of vitiligo. In fact, it is also white spots, which may reflect the completely different skin diseases. If it is judged blindly, it is even eager to try the remedy, which not only damaged the face value, but also buried serious hidden health hazards.
The five major types of diseases are now listed, and I hope to make a comprehensive and detailed introduction to the differential diagnosis of vitiligo.
1. Other pigmentation skin diseases
1. Halo NEVUS: A skin disease characterized by dehydration and halo around color moles. Okay to teen.
The course of the disease can be divided into four phases: the first phase is the color of the color mole, the second phase is the color mole in the center, the third phase is the central mole disappearing, and the fourth phase is the surrounding off -color dizziness disappear.
The skin lesions are better on the trunk, mostly single hair, and the edges are not pigmented.
2. Pigment -free mole: This disease often occurs after birth or after birth. The strip -shaped pigmentation is reduced, not pigmentation, and the edges are jagged or splattered; the hair of the skin lesion area is generally not white; damage is generally not accumulated.
3. Nevus ANEMICUS: The skin of the anemia mole is the skin that causes the skin to shrink the local blood vessels, not abnormal melanocytes. This disease occurs after life or childhood, and the position and form are relatively unchanged and do not retreat; when the edge of the skin is pressed by the glass, the limit of the skin and the surrounding normal skin disappear; Not red, and the surrounding skin becomes red, that is, Darier is positive; the skin lesions are pigment loss, not non -pigment loss spots, colorless islands, and the edges are not pigmented and do not affect hair or mucous membranes.
4. Piebaldism: This disease is a kind of ingredients of alternative chromosomal genetic diseases. KIT gene mutations cause melanocytes to differentiate and migrate disorders. As a result, the skin has no melanocytes. It is born when this disease is born; skin lesions are best occurred in the forehead; the color loss of the pigment is irregular, and there is a normal skin in the island instead of the color island after treatment. The diamond -shaped white forehead is characterized; not accumulated mucous membranes; the deformity of the eyes, ears, lips, and teeth can be abnormal.
5. Senile Leukoderma: Elderly white spots are more common in middle -aged and elderly people; skin lesions increased with age, which is better on the trunk and limbs. Skin; the hair of the skin lesion area is white and does not affect the mucous membrane.
Second, genetic related pigment reduction
1. Albinism (albinism): The skin, hair and eye pigment caused by the albinic acid enzyme gene mutations are completely or partially lost or partially lost. The disease is born; the skin lesions are generally developed and symmetrical; the hair becomes thinner and yellow, not white; the damage and intellectual obstacles are accompanied by eye.
2. Tuberous sclerosis: Nodular sclerosis is an ingotinye genetic disease caused by mutation from the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. The pigment loss of this disease is often leaf -shaped. After birth, the edges of the leaf -shaped white spots are not pigmented, colorless island, and does not affect hair and mucous membranes.
3. Incontinentia Pigmenti Achromicus: This disease is a kind of ingot chromosomal genetic disease. Darling pigment incontinence is mostly baby girls, which occurs soon after birth; skin lesions are distributed along the Blaschko line, which are linear, turbine -like, distributed and skin lesions. Feeling hair and mucous membranes;
3. Pigmentation of malignant tumors
1. Pigmented decreased granular granuloma: This disease is a rare type of granuloma. The skin pigmentation is low due to cytotoxic T cells, which is low in CD117 on melanocytes. amount reduced. The disease occurs in black and Asian children; its skin lesions can be accompanied by erythema, plaques, atrophy, and scales in except for pigmentation. It
Fourth, pigmentation after inflammation
1. Postinflammatic hypopigmentation after inflammation: Substituted pigmentation (psoriasis, characteristic dermatitis, flat moss, etc.) before inflammation or loss of spots after inflammation, but edge No pigmentation, colorless island, does not affect hair and mucous membranes. After a few weeks or months, the skin lesions can subscribe by themselves. 2. PityRiasis Alba: The cause is unknown, which may be related to the characteristic constitution, infection, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, wind blowing sun, soap, and dry skin. This disease is more common in children, and the skin lesions are better on the face; the realm of skin lesions is unclear and covered with scales on the top; no pigment is lost, the edges are not pigmented, colorless islands, and do not affect hair and mucous membranes.
Fifth, infected pigment reduction
1. Perform spots of color loss: This disease was first reported by Guillet in 1988. Studies have found that the onset of permeability of spa -like pigment is related to acne propionia. This disease is mainly seen in young people, no family history, and a history of non -inflammatory diseases before pigmentation. The rash is coin -shaped. The rash at the midline of the body is fused into large -shaped shape.
Summary: It can be seen that the same causes behind them are very different, such as the infection of microorganisms, the destruction of melanocytes, and malnutrition. Therefore, once white spots on the face are found, check in time and check the cause. Even if it is a small spot that is not damaged to the face value, you should seek medical treatment early to avoid the area of the area. Reference
 Ouyang Heng, Yang Zhibo. Vitiligo diagnosis and treatment [M]. People’s Army Medical Press, 2013.
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 Shao Changgeng. The identification of vitiligo and other skin pigmentation diseases [J]. China Mafeng Skin Disease Magazine, 2003, 19 (3): 3. 3.
 Zhang Jiangan, Different Diagnosis of Yu Jianbin. Vitiligo [J]. China Dermatology Magazine, 2014, 47 (001): 72-74.