Why are people hungry? This is a question that everyone has always been very concerned about. From the perspective of neuroscience, hunger may be because the discharge frequency of specific neurons changes, which makes the brain integration and the feeling of “hunger”. Usually our knowledge believes that hunger is due to the decrease in glucose concentration in the blood.
Specifically, there is a facility center and fullness center in the human brain of the human brain. The latter is the main “headquarters” that feel the concentration of blood glucose, hunger regulation and satiety. Generally speaking, when the glucose concentration decreases, on the one hand, the neuron of the full center is due to the changes in the glucose content, so the discharge frequency decreases; on the other hand, the feeding center has weakened because of the inhibitory effect of “hyperglycemia” and discharge. Increased frequency. The above two effects of the two have a feeling of hunger.
In addition, what is more interesting is the gastrointestinal tract that accommodates our food -although we are talking about “hungry” and “full of stomach” every time, but in fact, the gastrointestinal tract is controlled by autonomous nerves. Whether or not you need to eat is actually not perceived by yourself. It is conceivable that the most sensitive place for human beings may be our brain.
However, some people may ask, sometimes why do they feel full of eating, but soon they are hungry? Why can’t I control my appetite when I want to lose weight? Does this mean that your willpower is not firm enough? No!
Recently, experts from many countries including the University of London, the University of London, the University of Leeds, Harvard Medical College, and MIT have carried out relevant large -scale nutrition research Predict. Essence The result was published in the latest journal Nature Metabolism, a journal of Nature.
The research team collected detailed data of 1070 people after two weeks of standardized breakfast and free selection of blood sugar reactions and other health markers after meals. Standard breakfast is based on muffins. Other breakfast contains the same heat as this, but it is different in carbohydrate, protein, fat, and cellulose. The participants also conducted an empty blood glucose reaction test (OGTT) to measure their body’s ability to regulate blood sugar.
In addition, participants wear sticker continuous blood glucose monitor (CGM) to measure their blood glucose levels throughout the study, and monitor activities and sleep through wearable devices. They also used mobile applications to record hunger, alertness, and exact time and food for eating during the day.
The results show that for participants who eat each meal standardized diet, compared to the baseline level, the average blood sugar decline of 2-3 hours after meals indicates that the increase in hunger (R = 0.16) and the time before the next meal (R = – 0.14) increased energy intake 3-4 hours and 24 hours after meals (R = 0.19, R = 0.27).
At the same time, compared with participants with stable blood glucose, even if they eat a meal, people with the rapid decline in blood sugar increased by 9%, and the time for eating a meal was about half an hour earlier. At the same time, these participants often consume more calories of 75 calories within 3-4 hours after breakfast, and take about 312 large calories throughout the day. This diet model may cause a weight of 20 pounds within a year!
In the past, the blood sugar after eating was concentrated in the horizontal lifting method within the first two hours after the meal, the so -called blood glucose peak. However, after analyzing the data, the Predict team noticed that some people experienced a significant “sugar fall” within 2-4 hours after the initial peak, and their blood glucose levels quickly dropped below the baseline before the rebate.
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Kim Spector, a professor of genetic epidemiological professors and Zoe of King of London, concluded: “Food is complicated and human beings are complicated, but our research finally opens the black box between diet and health. A cutting -edge science is transformed into family nutrition and microbiological group tests, so that everyone has the opportunity to discover their unique response to food to support their metabolism and intestinal health. “
Wyatt， P.， Berry， S.E.， Finlayson， G. et al. Postprandial glycaemic dips predict appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals. Nat Metab (2021). https：//doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00383- X