On March 23, 2021, actor Zhang Shaohua died of illness at the age of 75. Zhang Shaohua’s family released Weibo that since September 2010, Zhang Shaohua has been troubled by “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” (hereinafter referred to as “slow obstructive lung”) and has been hospitalized many times.
Over the years, Zhang Shaohua has been fighting slowly. As early as her Weibo video in June 2020, she could obviously feel that she was thinner.
Zhang Shaohua has been engaged in performing arts for nearly 60 years and has shaped many classic characters. She has starred in many film and television works such as “The Gate of the House”, “Secret”, “My Ugly Mother”, and “Brave Heart”. Actor for life. Zhang Shaohua played the ugly mother in the TV series “My Ugly Mother”, interpreting her character to the fullest.
Such an old drama bone died, and it was undoubtedly regrettable. So what causes the “murderer” slow obstruction? How should we deal with it?
Purit 100 million people! What is the slow obstruction of the lungs?
Childbal pulmonary obstruction is a common, preventable and treatment chronic airway disease, which is characterized by continuous restrictions on air flow and corresponding respiratory symptoms. Its pathological changes are mainly airway and (or) alveolar abnormalities. It is usually related to the significant exposure of harmful particles or gas. The hereditary and perceptual, abnormal inflammation reactions, and many host factors such as the development of the lungs are involved in the onset process; severe complications may affect the performance and mortality of the disease.
Slow -blocking the most commonly developed by chronic bronchitis and (or) lung emphysema, further developing into common chronic diseases that have a common chronic disease in pulmonary heart disease, respiratory failure, pulmonary encephalopathy, and complications of all systems of the whole body. Early diseases are chronic bronchitis, that is, chronic cough and sputum; CT tests can be found to be emphysema, which can be divided into severity of different diseases such as mild and moderate diseases. With the development of the disease, patients may develop respiratory dysfunction; if patients have respiratory virus infections or bacterial infections, slow pulmonary acute aggravation will occur.
According to the World Health Organization data, about 3 million people suffer from slow lung obstruction each year. The disease is expected to become the third major cause of death in the world in 2030. There are nearly 100 million patients with slow pulmonary patients in China, and their prevalence among people 40 or above is 13.7%. Cubes are the third place in the sorting of the causes of single diseases in my country. However, slow lung blockage can be prevented or treated. Through treatment, the symptoms of patients can be improved and the quality of life can be improved.
What causes slow obstruction? Internal and external causes must be paid attention to!
There are many risk factors for slowing the disease of the pulmonary, which can be divided into two aspects: individual factors and environmental factors.
(1) Individual factors
1. Genetic factors: Slow -blocked lungs have genetic easily sensuality. The latest research of the International Lesson Pulmonary Genetics Alliance found that 82 genetic sites related to chronic obstructive pulmonary, different genes are associated with different pathological or clinical characteristics of chronic pulmonary obstructive pulmonary. Essence
2. Age and Gender: Age is the risk factor of chronic obstruction. The older the age, the higher the prevalence of slow pulmonary obstruction. The difference between the prevalence of slow pulmonary blocking between men and women is inconsistent. Some literature reports that women are more sensitive to the harm of tobacco tobacco tobacco.
3. Lung growth and development: Direct and indirect exposure of pregnancy, birth and adolescence can affect the growth of the lungs when it is indirectly exposed to harmful factors. Disity of lung growth and development is a risk factors for slow lung blocking.
4. Bronchial asthma (referred to as asthma) and high reactivity of airway: Asthma can not only exist at the same time as chronic obstructive pulmonary, but also a risk factor for slow pulmonary blocking, and the high reactivity of the airway is also involved in the pathogenic process of chronic pulmonary obstruction.
5. Low body weight index: Low body weight index is also related to the onset of slow lung blocking. The lower the weight index, the higher the prevalence of slow lung prevention. Smoking and weight index interact with slow lung blockage.
(2) Environmental factors
1. Tobacco: Smoking is the most important environmental pathogenic factor in slow lung blocking. Compared with non -smokers, the lung function of smokers has a high rate of abnormality. In the first second, the effort was fell and the risk of death was increased. Passive smoking may also cause respiratory symptoms and slow lung blocking. Smoking for pregnant women may affect the development of fetus in the uterus and lung growth, and has a certain impact on the function of the fetus’s immune system.
2. Fuel smoke: smoke produced by fuels such as firewood, coal, and animal feces contains a large amount of harmful ingredients, such as carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and unprecedented hydrocarbon particles and multi -ring organic compounds. The use of cleaning fuels and strengthening ventilation can delay the decline in lung function and reduce the risk of slow lung prevention.
3. Air pollution: granular substances (PM) and harmful gas substances in air pollutants (PM) and harmful gas substances (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and carbon dioxide, etc.) have stimulating and cytotoxic effects on bronchial mucosa. The concentration of sulfur dioxide in the air may follow PM The elevation of elevation is positively correlated with the number of acute aggravation of slow lung.
4. Occupational dust: When the concentration of professional dust (silicon dioxide, coal dust, cotton dust, cane, etc.) is too large or the contact time is too long, it can lead to the occurrence of slow lung blocking. The irritating substances, organic dust, and allergens of the professional environment can lead to increased airway reactivity and participate in the disease of chronic lung blocking through this channel.
5. Infection and chronic bronchitis: respiratory tract infection is an important factor in the disease and intensification of slow pulmonary block. Virus and (or) bacterial infections are common causes of acute aggravation of slow pulmonary obstruction. Repeated pose in childhood infection is related to the decrease in lung function and the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in adulthood. 6. Social and economic status: The onset of slow lung blocking is related to the social and economic status of patients. There may be a certain internal connection between indoor and outdoor air pollution degrees, nutritional status and other differences with the social and economic status.
How to deal with slow obstruction? Early diagnosis and early treatment is the key!
The incidence of slow pulmonary blockage is high and the economic burden is heavy. Its screening, prevention and management are under tremendous pressure. Early screening and diagnosis is an important means of scientific and reasonable prevention and control of chronic lung blockage. It can not only improve the diagnostic rate, but also be of great significance to the evaluation of patients with acute aggravating risk in the future, quality of life, and life expectancy.
Childbal pulmonary disease has always been considered to be middle -aged and elderly diseases. This is because most patients with slow pulmonary obstructive pulmonary diagnosis have been advanced during the diagnosis of the diagnosis. At the beginning of treatment, the limitation of airflow has been obvious, which has caused us not to know enough about early slow lung blockage. Slow -block, as a chronic airway disease characterized by continuous respiratory symptoms and airflow restrictions, if it can be diagnosed early and adopted intervention measures, it may prevent the development of the disease and improve long -term prognosis.
In other words, no matter if there is cough, sputum, and dyspnea, it is necessary to check the lung function regularly for high -risk groups. Pulmonary function test is a necessary condition for diagnosis of slow lung prevention, and it is also an objective indicator for evaluating the severity of the disease. Those who smoke, people over 40 years old, have a family history of chronic obstruction, repeated cough and sputum, or those who often expose oil smoke and have long -term exposure to the dust environment, need regular lung function testing. If it is more likely to have difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, and decreased activity capabilities than peers when climbing stairs and doing housework, you should go to the hospital for lung function examination in time. Of course, some should pay attention to the identification of heart disease and insufficiency.
Early cough, sputum, and asthma symptoms are easily ignored by patients. More than 80%of patients with slow pulmonary obstructive pulmonary have reached the middle and advanced stages of the disease. Because the prolifiers may have no symptoms in the early stage, lung function test is a necessary examination for diagnosis of chronic lung blockage, so conventional pulmonary function tests for high -risk people with slow pulmonary blockage are necessary.
<!-2392: Respiratory terminal page
. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis and treatment guide (revised version of 2021) [J]. Chinese tuberculosis and breathing magazine, 2021, 44 (03): 170-205.