With the development of socio -economic and changing the lifestyle of residents, hypertension has become one of the major public health issues that affect the health of my country and the world’s health. According to data, from 1975 to 2015, the number of people with high blood pressure in the world increased from 594 million to 1.1 billion, while the prevalence of hypertension over 18 years of age was 25.2%, which is equivalent to 1 of 4 people per 4 people. A patient with hypertension.
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Hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The related influencing factors to control hypertension are the top priority of preventing and treating hypertension and even cardiovascular disease. As we all know, in addition to drug treatment, active improvement of lifestyle patients is one of the most economical and effective methods in “non -drug treatment”. Studies have shown that if you manage your own lifestyle reasonably and persist for a long time, you can even reduce, delay or avoid the demand for antihypertensive drugs.
“Guidelines for Comprehensive Management Practice of grassroots cardiovascular disease 2020” emphasized that “non -drug treatment” is an indispensable part of all cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Whether healthy people, high -risk people with cardiovascular disease, or patients with cardiovascular diseases have been diagnosed, it is beneficial to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
1. Reasonable diet
Reasonable diet can prevent cardiovascular disease. The dietary intervention needs to customize the solution according to the personal situation, and combines its own weight, blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipids.
Whether it is patients with hypertension or the general population, they should eat more vegetables and fruits to reduce the intake of fine white rice noodles, fat, fried barbecue foods, cream cakes, candy, animal brain and internal organs. In addition, reduce the intake of salt and edible oil, and increase the intake of fresh vegetables rich in potassium -rich fresh vegetables (such as spinach, banana, dates), fungi, yam, potato and other foods. Drinking tea in moderation, which facilitates diuretic and antihypertensive, is not suitable for drinking strong tea.
Comprehensive management of dietary nutrition
2, exercise exercise
The guidelines at home and abroad have pointed out that for patients with hypertension, exercise reduction is indeed effective! According to your own conditions, select different types, strengths, time, and frequencies.
If exercise is used as a treatment method, a certain intensity must be achieved to achieve the effect. 2021 EAPC/ESC Recommendation of personalized exercise prescriptions on prevention and treatment of hypertension. Aerobic exercise can be used as a first -line physical activity method with hypertension, which can help reduce the average systolic blood pressure by 4.9 ~ 12.0 mmHg, and the diastolic pressure decreases by 3.4 ~ 5.8 mmHg.
Common aerobic exercises include fast walking, jogging, swimming, bicycle, fitness exercise, skipping rope, etc., should be performed 4 to 7 times a week, and each time it lasts 30 to 60 min. During the exercise, it should be noted that it feels relaxed or too difficult to adjust the content and number of times, and it is advisable to not feel obvious fatigue the next day after exercise. The severe cold, cool summer or physical discomfort should stop exercise.
3, control weight
Overweight or obesity is one of the important risk factors for patients with hypertension, and often increases with the increase of weight. Therefore, active management weight can effectively control the development of hypertension. Studies have shown that each loss of 1 kg can reduce blood pressure by about 1mmHg. “Guidelines for Comprehensive Management Management of grass -roots cardiovascular disease 2020” recommends that weigh the weight to BMI <24.0 kg/m2.
At the same time, in addition to controlling weight, too large waist circumference can also increase the risk of hypertension. “Consensus of China Middle -aged and Middle -aged Hypertension Management Experts” suggested that male waist circumference should be controlled below 90 cm, and women’s waist circumference should be controlled below 85 cm.
4, quit smoking and drinking
Tobacco is harmful to health. Tobacco tobacco contains more than 200 kinds of toxic and harmful substances. At least 69 substances have carcinogenic effects, which not only causes cancer, but also affects the treatment effect of antihypertensive. Studies have found that after 2 months of quitting, the blood pressure and heart rate of smoking quit began to decline.
In addition, the relationship between drinking and cardiovascular disease is more complicated. There are research tips that moderate drinking can reduce the occurrence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular adverse incidents. But most of the research shows that drinking is not good for health. Studies have shown that the average intake of alcohol has decreased by 67%, the systolic voltage decreases by 3.31mmHg, and the diastolic pressure decreases by 2.04mmHg.
Therefore, for health, quit smoking and drinking.
5, a good mentality
Stress is one of the important measures to ensure cardiovascular health. Excessive psychological stress reactions, especially negative psychological stress reactions, increase the risk of hypertension. Negative psychological stress response may come from work, family, economic conditions, or disease.
However, it is not easy to relieve stress. Learn to reduce expectations of things, avoid contact with people who bring negative emotions to themselves, and do what they like. In addition, exercise is also a very effective way to relieve stress and exercise regularly to protect physical and mental health.
6, blood pressure monitoring
my country guide pointed out that only through the blood pressure assessment of the clinic may underestimate the impact of exercise on blood pressure control. Monitoring for more than 24 hours of cardiovascular regulation will become more obvious. The 24 -hour dynamic blood pressure monitoring is more suitable for monitoring whether the change of lifestyle is effective, and reminds patients with hypertension to pay attention to potential complications. In this regard, long -range electronic management technology is more likely to maximize the efficiency and restrict costs. In summary, in addition to drug treatment, patients with hypertension are also very important. Whether healthy people, high -risk people with cardiovascular disease, or patients with cardiovascular diseases have been diagnosed, it is beneficial to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
1. Wang Zengwu, Chen Junshi, Gao Runlin, et al. Guide to the comprehensive management practice of grass-roots cardiovascular disease 2020 [J]. Chinese Medical Frontier Magazine: Electronic Edition, 2020 (8): 1-73.
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2. PHYSICAL AS AS A Critical Component of Firstline Treatment for Elevated Blood Pressure or Cholesterol: WHO, What, and How? A scientific statement from the American heart association.hypertension.2021
3.Hanssen H， et al. Personalized exercise prescription in the prevention and treatment of arterial hypertension： a Consensus Document from the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC) and the ESC Council on Hypertension. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2021 Mar24.
4. Liu Jing, Lu Xinzheng, Chen Luyuan, et al. Consensus on the consensus of high blood pressure management in China [J]. China Hypertension Magazine, 2020, 28 (4): 9.