In the hospital, I often see such a scene. Parents hold their children, rush into the clinic, and open the children’s clothes: “Doctor, look at my child.” The child’s skin is abnormal, the palm and feet have obvious rashes, Keep scratching, crying, fever in the body, and finally diagnosed with hand, foot and mouth disease. Hand -foot and mouth disease has been very common in recent years. In the “Overview of the National Legal Infectious Disease Epidemic in the National Legal Infectious Diseases” released on the official website of the National Health and Health Commission (Health and Health Commission), hand -foot and mouth disease in 2018 is as high as 2.37 million cases. The number of diseases in Class C infectious diseases is the first. Hand -foot and mouth disease has a serious threat to the health of children in my country!
In 1981, my country was discovered and reported in Shanghai in 1981. Since then, more than 10 provinces and cities in Beijing, Hebei, Tianjin, Fujian, Jilin, Shandong, Hubei, and Guangdong have successively reported hand, foot and mouth disease. Since 2007, Linyi, Fuyang, and Shangqiu, Fang, and Henan Province in Shandong Province have built the disease, and the cases of severe illnesses and deaths have occurred. After that, there are diseases in various provinces, cities, and autonomous regions across the country. There are differences in the popular mode and intensity. Hand -foot and mouth disease in the south and eastern provinces are particularly high; the incidence of rural children is significantly higher than that of cities.
Culmids of hand, foot and mouth disease
Hand and mouth disease (Foot and Mouth Disease) is a child -stage acute infectious disease caused by intestinal virus and is common in children under 5 years old. In 2008, my country incorporated hand, foot and mouth disease into the statutory Class C infectious disease. According to statistics from the national legal infectious diseases, the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease was between 3701/100,000 and 205.06/100,000. In recent years Between 6.46/100,000 and 51.00/100,000.
Hand -foot and mouth disease is caused by intestinal virus. There are more than 30 types of intestinal virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease. Type 3, 5, part of ECHovirus (Enterovirus A71, EV-A71), etc., is the most common with CV-A16 and EV-A71. Ev-A71. There is no cross -immunity between the intestinal virus.
CV-A16 and EV-A71 are the most common pathogens in the epidemic of large-scale hand, foot, and mouth disease in the world; EV-A71 is also an absolutely superior pathogen that causes severe and death. In the 1970s and 1980s, EV-A71 broke out in Europe and the United States; after the late 1990s, EV-A71 continued to become popular in the Asia-Pacific region including Malaysia, China, Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, South Korea, and Cambodia.
In May 2008, the Health and Health Commission (former Ministry of Health) incorporated hand, foot and mouth disease into the statutory Class C infectious disease, and reported the epidemic information in a timely manner through the direct reporting system of the national disease monitoring and management. From 2008 to 2017, there were about 18.17 million cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease in my country, of which about 150,000 cases were in severe cases and more than 3,500 people were killed. About 570,000 cases have the results of laboratory diseases, and the proportion of positive proportion of EV-A71, CV-A16 and other intestinal virus in the pathogen composition accounts for about 44%, 25%, and 31%respectively. Mainly caused by EV-A71; the pathogenic composition of hand-foot and mouth disease in different years is mainly EV-A71 and CV-A16.
The burden on the disease of hand, foot and mouth disease is very heavy
It is estimated that the costs of severe and mild hand, foot, and mouth disease (direct medical expenses and indirect costs) of severe illnesses caused by EV-A71 infection each year are 180 million yuan and 1 billion yuan, respectively. Due to missed reports, herpes-pharyngeal gorgeos and some nervous system infections have not been included in the report, and long-term sequelae cases are not calculated. The total economic burden of EV-A71 infection will be higher than the above estimates.
Clinical symptoms of hand, foot and mouth disease
Wang Yuanzhao, director of the Xiasha Hospital of Zhejiang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, said that most of them occur in children under 5 years old, and the incidence of young children under 3 years of age is the highest; the disease often shows explosive epidemiography after it occurs, and it is difficult to prevent control.
At the beginning of the disease, the symptoms of the whole body were mild, accompanied by symptoms such as fever, sleepy, sore throat, drooling, runny nose, and reduced appetite. After 1 to 2 days, the palm, feet, oral mucosa, and perianal will appear rash one after another, and a few children affect their limbs and hips. In severe cases, complications such as myocarditis and pulmonary edema. In this case, parents do not have to panic. They must find it early and seek medical treatment for a long time.
Treatment of hand, foot and mouth disease
For the treatment of hand, foot and mouth disease, the following two points are commonly used in clinical practice:
(1) Strengthen isolation: Avoid cross -infections, rest proper rest, and do oral and skin care. The herpes in the oral cavity can make the children pain. It can use the opening of the throat spray (children) in the patient’s part, Pudi Lan Keyaning Bacterial Oral Spots, etc. at the same time. Strong food. Keep your skin clean, and avoid dipping water. Pay attention to keep dry and wear loose and soft clothing.
(2) Drug treatment: “Chinese Medicine Pediatrics Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines · Hand -foot and mouth disease” released by the Chinese Academy of Chinese Medicine is recommended by hand, foot and mouth disease. Clear heat bubble tablets, rehabilitation new solution and other Chinese medicines to propagate lungs to solve the lungs, clear heat and humidity, clinically use children’s stains to clear heat granules to relieve wind, regulate the gastrointestinal and intestines, and combine Pudi Blue anti -inflammatory oral liquid clearing heat and detoxifying, which can enhance the efficacy; hands and feet; hands and feet; When oral diseases are divided into damp heat and poisoning syndromes, they can be used to drink and defeat the gas to clear the gas and detoxify the dampness. Prevention of hand-foot-mouth disease
Of course, hand, foot and mouth disease is still focusing on prevention. According to the Chinese CDC’s suggestion in the “Technical Guide of the Instal Virus 71 Inactivated Vaccine”:
The vaccination target is ≥ June age, the age of being susceptible to children, the sooner the vaccination, the better;
Encourage the vaccination procedure before December to play a protective role as soon as possible;
For children over 5 years old, vaccination is not recommended.
The above introduces that there are many types of viruses that lead to hand -foot and mouth disease, including the Cosca Virus group A Group 2, 4, 5, 7, 16, etc., and the intestinal virus 71. Among them, EV71 is the main cause of severe hand, foot and mouth disease.
According to statistics, from 2009 to 2015, the average annual reports of the health department in my country reported about 1.9 million cases and 400-500 cases of death cases, while 74%of the severe cases were EV71 virus infection, and EV71 positive in death cases accounted for 93%. At the same time, clinical research data shows that the protection rate of hand, foot and mouth disease caused by the vaccine for EV71 virus infection is 97.3%. Therefore, the current hand, foot and mouth disease is only targeted at EV71. Since the vaccine has the targeted pathogen, it also represents:
If the vaccine is injected, the vaccine will no longer get hands, foot and mouth disease, and no vaccine is needed.
Three suggestions for parents here:
1. Develop good hygiene habits, so as to wash your hands logistically before meals. I often rinse my mouth after meals to keep oral hygiene.
2. Try not to take your children to the crowd densely and have poor air circulation in public places to stay and reduce the opportunity to contact infection.
3. Pay attention to children’s nutrition and rest. Do not drink raw water and cold foods, exercise appropriately, enhance children’s resistance and reduce the risk of being infected.