The routine urine examination is easy and easy to do, and it is one of the most commonly used examination methods in the clinic. It can directly and quickly reflect the condition of the urinary system. Therefore, regular urination examination is of great significance to timely detecting urinary system diseases. Clinically, many patients often fail to detect diseases in time because of neglecting routine urine examinations, failing to treat them in time, and delay the condition. As a result, kidney disease has entered later stage, which is really regrettable.
Routine testing of urine tests includes the color, transparency, pH, red blood cells, white blood cells, leukocytes, epithelial cells, tubular, protein, proportion, and diapers.
(1) Urine color: urine contains urine lutein, so it is yellow. The daily excretion of urine pigments is generally constant, so the depth of urine color changes with the amount of urine. Common urinary colors are abnormal: ① Food and drug factors (riboflavin, Lifuping, Di Ling, Rhubarb, etc.) can make the urine yellow. ② Hematuria, which can be pale brown red or red. ③ Blood -red protein urine, strong tea colors or soy sauce color. ④ Biliary pigmentation, dark yellow. ⑤ chyluria, milky white.
(2) Transparency: Most of the normal fresh urine is clear and transparent, and it becomes turbid shortly after discharge.
(3) Poisidenicity: Normal urine is weak acidic, or it can also be neutral or weakly alkaline. The acid and alkali of urine depends to a large extent on the type of diet, the drugs and diseases taken.
(4) Cells: The cells in the clinical clinical urine are red blood cells, white blood cells and epithelial cells. ① Red blood cells: Occasionally red blood cells can be seen in normal people’s urine, and centrifugal retrospective tests are not more than 3 in each high. ② White blood cells: There are a few white blood cells in normal people’s urine, and the horizontal examination of centrifugal rear examination is not more than 5. ③ epithelial cells: In normal urine, a small number of small circular epithelial cells with fat degeneration can be found.
(5) Tube type: Normal urine contains only extremely small amount of albumin, no tube type, or occasional a few transparent tube types.
(6) Protein: It is generally believed that the mass of the protein daily from normal people is 40 to 80 mg, up to 100-150 mg, and the conventional standard detection is negative.
(7) Percent: The proportion of urine is between 1.010 and 1.025. In the state of dehydration of the body, the urine output decreases, and the urine ratio increases; on the contrary, the urine output increases, and the urine proportion decreases. The proportion of urine mainly reflects the concentration of the kidneys.
(8) Dinoperative urine sugar: There may be trace glucose in normal people. The sugar content in the daily urine is 0.1 to 0.3 grams, and the maximum does not exceed 0.9 grams.
Urine infection of acute urinary tract can be turbid and corrupted. Urine protein is often in line or a small amount, most of which are trace to one plus (+). If the urine protein quantity is greater than 200 mg/24 hours, it does not meet the diagnosis of acute urinary tract infection. The increase in red blood cells in urinary sediment (2 to 10/high -power vision), only a small number of patients with obvious hematuria, and very few patients may have the naked eye hematuria. Urinary cells often increase significantly. Clinicians, such as preliminary diagnosis of urinary tract infections, white blood celluria (pyuria) is often the basis for diagnosis.
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There can be trace proteins in chronic pyelonephritis, but the quantification of urinary protein in 24 hours generally does not exceed 2 grams. There are not many urinary white cells, and can even have no white celluria (pyuria), and occasionally white blood cell tubes can be occurred. However, when its acute seizures, like acute urinary tract infections, pyuria will occur, many white blood cells appear in the urine, and there may be a small amount of red blood cells.
The above is the content of the regular examination of the medical examination.
(Editor in charge: Tang Aifeng)